育龙网中国第一教育门户【咨询电话:010- 51290949 】

育龙网

您现在的位置:育龙网 > 在职博士 > 博士资讯
育龙网核心提示: PASSAGEONEWhethertheeyesare“thewindowsofthesoul”isdebatable;thattheyareintenselyimportantininterpersonalcommunicationisa
PASSAGEONE
Whethertheeyesare“thewindowsofthesoul”isdebatable;thattheyareintenselyimportantininterpersonalcommunicationisafact。Duringthefirsttwomonthsofababy’slife,thestimulusthatproducesasmileisapairofeyes。Theeyesneednotbereal:amaskwithtwodotswillproduceasmile。Significantly,arealhumanfacewitheyescoveredwillnotmotivateasmile,norwillthesightofonlyoneeyewhenthefaceispresentedinprofile。Thisattractiontoeyesasopposedtothenoseormouthcontinuesasthebabymatures。Inonestudy,whenAmericanfour–year–oldswereaskedtodrawpeople,75percentofthemdrewpeoplewithmouths,but99percentofthemdrewpeoplewitheyes。InJapan,however,wherebabiesarecarriedontheirmother’sback,infantsdonotacquireasmuchattachmenttoeyesastheydoinothercultures,Asaresult,Japaneseadultsmakelittleuseofthefaceeithertoencodeordecodemeaning。Infact,Argylerevealsthatthe“properplacetofocusone’sgazeduringaconversationinJapanisontheneckofone’sconversationpartner。”
TheroleofeyecontactinaconversationalexchangebetweentwoAmericansiswelldefined:speakersmakecontactwiththeeyesoftheirlistenerforaboutonesecond,thenglanceawayastheytalk;inafewmomentstheyre–establisheyecontactwiththelistenerorreassurethemselvesthattheiraudienceisstillattentive,thenshifttheirgazeawayoncemore。Listeners,meanwhile,keeptheireyesonthefaceofthespeaker,allowingthemselvestoglanceawayonlybriefly。Itisimportantthattheybelookingatthespeakerattheprecisemomentwhenthespeakerreestablisheseyecontact:iftheyarenotlooking,thespeakerassumesthattheyaredisinterestedandeitherwillpauseuntileyecontactisresumedorwillterminatetheconversation。Justhowcriticalthiseyemaneuveringistothemaintenanceofconversationalflowbecomesevidentwhentwospeakersarewearingdarkglasses:theremaybeasortoftrafficjamofwordscausedbyinterruption,falsestarts,andunpredictablepauses。1。Theauthorisconvincedthattheeyesare______。A)ofextremeimportanceinexpressingfeelingsandexchangingideas
B)somethingthroughwhichonecanseeaperson’sinnerworld
C)ofconsiderablesignificanceinmakingconversationsinteresting
D)somethingthevalueofwhichislargelyamatteroflongdebate
2。Babieswillnotbestimulatedtosmilebyaperson______。
A)whosefrontviewisfullyperceivedC)whosefaceisseenfromtheside
B)whosefaceiscoveredwithamaskD)whosefaceisfreeofanycovering
3。Accordingtothepassage,theJapanesefixtheirgazeontheirconversationpartner’sneckbecause______。
A)theydon’tliketokeeptheireyesonthefaceofthespeaker
B)theyneednotcommunicatethrougheyecontact
C)theydon’tthinkitpolitetohaveeyecontact
D)theydidn’thavemuchopportunitytocommunicatethrougheyecontactinbabyhood
4。Accordingtothepassage,aconversationbetweentwoAmericansmaybreakdowndueto______。
A)temporaryglancingawayfromthelistener
B)eyecontactsofmorethanonesecond
C)improperly–timedceasingofeyecontact
D)constantadjustmentofeyecontacts
5。Tokeepaconversationflowingsmoothly,itisbetterfortheparticipants______。
A)nottoweardarkspectaclesC)nottoglanceawayfromeachother
B)nottomakeanyinterruptionsD)nottomakeunpredictablepauses
文体:
结构:
语言点:
写作技巧:
PASSAGETWO
Moreandmore,theoperationsofourbusinesses,governments,andfinancialinstitutionsarecontrolledbyinformationthatexistsonlyinsidecomputermemories。Anyonecleverenoughtomodifythisinformationforhisownpurposescanreapsubstantialrewards,Evenworse,anumberofpeoplewhohavedonethisandbeencaughtatithavemanagedtogetawaywithoutpunishment。It’seasyforcomputercrimestogoundetectedifnoonechecksuponwhatthecomputerisdoing。Butevenifthecrimeisdetected,thecriminalmaywalkawaynotonlyunpunishedbutwithaglowingrecommendationfromhisformeremployers。Ofcourse,wehavenostatisticsoncrimesthatgoundetected。Butit’sdisturbingtonotehowmanyofthecrimeswedoknowaboutweredetectedbyaccident,notbysystematicinspectionsorothersecurityprocedures。Thecomputercriminalswhohavebeencaughtmayhavebeenthevictimsofuncommonlybadluck。Forexample,acertainkeypunchoperatorcomplainedofhavingtostayovertimetopunchextracards。Investigationrevealedthattheextracardsshewasbeingaskedtopunchwerefordishonesttransactions。Inanothercase,dissatisfiedemployeesofthethieftippedoffthecompanythatwasbeingrobbed。